So I spend the night with reinstalling Mac OS X and restoring from backup. The recovery mode on a Mac is quite mighty. While trying to fix it, I got the disk mounted read only, so I could use the terminal application there to find items modified within the last hours. I copied a couple of files from disk to an usb stick.
Time Capsules are a big help. I recommend everyone to have a couple in different locations! If you plan for the case you need a backup, please keep an eye on how the restore process will work and actually test it.
It looks like I lost no emails as I got back 99.9% from backup and the latest 10 over the USB stick. Also via USB stick, I got the projects out where I worked the last hours before the crash.
The rest of the day will be needed to recompile the plugins (temp files are not in backups), redownload some movies (also not in backup) and getting VMWare machines back online.
Have a great new year day!